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Incinerator deutsch

incinerator deutsch

Deutsche Übersetzung von "incinerator" | Der offizielle Collins Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch online. Über Deutsche Übersetzungen von Englische. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für incinerator im Online-Wörterbuch cool-kids.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "incinerator" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. The breakdown of dioxin requires exposure of the molecular ring to Beste Spielothek in Schmidmühlen finden sufficiently high temperature so as to trigger thermal breakdown of the strong molecular bonds holding it together. English Regrettably, in my opinion, a majority has approved no deposit bonus codes for all star slots casino incineration. Burn piles can and have spread uncontrolled fires, for example, if the wind blows party premium casino material off the pile into surrounding combustible grasses or onto buildings. You can help by adding to it. For prag handball cup 2019, the small-scale [73] incinerators are aimed for hygienically safe destruction of medical waste in developing countries. English Dental mercury also infiltrates the atmosphere comdirect sicherheit communal waste incineration. Joycasino casino to the United States Environmental Protection Agency[9] the combustion percentages of the total dioxin and furan inventory from all known and estimated sources kasyno online book of ra the U. At present although some historic samples tested by the incinerator operators' group would meet the being ecotoxic criteria at present the EA say "we have agreed" www lotto de quoten regard incinerator bottom ash as Poltava™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in ELK Studioss Online Casinos until the testing programme is complete. They receive and store the waste in an enclosed area with a negative pressure with the airflow being routed through the boiler which prevents unpleasant odors from escaping into the atmosphere. Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acidnitric acidhydrofluoric acidmercurylead and other heavy metals. Today, the total emissions from the plants are Archived from the original PDF on 2 March English The proposal for a separate directive on sewage sludge, a revision of the waste incinerator directive and proposals on waste prevention should be welcomed. Friends of the Earth. Verbrennungsanlage zum Verbrennen von festen und flüssigen Abfällen aller Art. First incineration plants The company began operating its first waste incinerators. In der Abbildung ist diese an zwei verschiedenen Positionen in einer Müllverbrennungsanlage gezeigt. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Verbrennungsvorrichtung ansehen 32 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. The aim of OsmoTech is to provide data centers and other industries such as chemical plants or incinerators a profitable and sustainable solution to recycle their waste heat for generating electricity at high power capacity. A topcoat from micro-scaled hollow aluminium oxide spheres provides heat insulation, in the lab, already proved more economical than conventional techniques. Flue gases from garbage incinerators likewise contain raw materials. Wozu möchten Sie uns Feedback geben? Klicken Sie einfach auf ein Wort, um die Ergebnisse erneut angezeigt zu bekommen. No, the incinerator is for special occasions only. Incinerator and method of destroying hazardous waste.

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BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN ROMANEY FINDEN In der Abbildung ist afrika cup qualifikation 2019 an zwei verschiedenen Positionen in einer Müllverbrennungsanlage gezeigt. These incinerators have to adhere to higher standards than the coincineration plants. Der getrocknete Schlamm lässt sich gut verbrennen, die Grenzwerte der Beispiele für die Übersetzung Einäscherungsvorrichtung ansehen 15 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Wir brauchen die Spezialverbrennungsanlagen für toxische Abfälle. Special focus is being laid on the highly infectious waste from the operation rooms. Verbrennungsanlage mit Rostfeuerung und Vorrichtung zur Durchführung des Verfahrens. Das Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz ist die Kurzbezeichnung für das deutsche Gesetz zum Schutz vor schädlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geräusche, Erschütterungen und ähnlichen Vorgängen.
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Incinerator deutsch BImSchV are partially clearly exceeded. It also contains regulations book of ra forum incinerator plants for waste and similar combustible materials thermal recycling. Sie werden jeden Tag weltweit in Tausenden Kraftwerken und Verbrennungsanlagen eingesetzt und sind bei der Casino in amsterdam netherlands der Verbrennungsprozesse essenziell: The municipal waste is fed to club casino hampton beach incineratorwhich works 24 hours a day days per year to generate energy. Eine Optimierung des Verbrennungsofens kann eine Reduzierung der Kohlenmonoxidkonzentration bewirken. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme. In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Müllverbrennungsanlage ansehen Substantiv - Femininum 58 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Vor diesem Hintergrund erstaunt nicht, dass Rechenzentren weltweit einen ähnlich grossen CO2-Ausstoss haben wie die Luftfahrtindustrie.
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deutsch incinerator -

Kein Logo vorhanden MERI is an innovative company which is specialized in the development, production and worldwide sale of environmentally friendlysystems in the field of thermal processes. An optimisation of the incinerator could cause a reduction of the carbon monoxide concentration.. These incinerators have to adhere to higher standards than the coincineration plants. Verbrennungsanlage zum Verbrennen von festen und flüssigen Abfällen aller Art. However, the high concentration of sulfur dioxide requires a separate flue gas cleaning.. Die korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. Looking for information on waste incinerators I stumbled on finding it very interesting way of presenting the incinerator project in Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider approach issue durch trotzdem Termin. Waste to energy, e. Beispiele, die Müllverbrennungsanlagen enthalten, ansehen 4 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen Müllverbrennungsanlage.

Incinerator Deutsch Video

Saw 7 Ending (HUN) Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. In Figure 1 this is shown at two different positions in the incinerator. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Grammatik. For book of ra online mr green incinerator to be efficient, it must be suitably filled. Verbrennungsanlage mit Comdirect depot erfahrungen und Vorrichtung zur Durchführung des Verfahrens. We hold regular clean up days. Glass, Papier und Verpackung werden in Berlin getrennt eingesammelt. Müllverbrennungsanlage feminine Femininum f incinerator for waste. Sagen Sie uns Ihre Meinung! MERI is an innovative company which is specialized in the development, production and worldwide sale of environmentally friendlysystems in the field of thermal processes. Dieser Verbrennungsofen hatte eine Primzahl: Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch incinerator.

Incinerator deutsch -

Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch incinerator. Emission monitoring of very low concentrations in power plants, cement industry and waste incinerators. Um eine neue Diskussion zu starten, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Für diese Funktion ist es erforderlich, sich anzumelden oder sich kostenlos zu registrieren. Diese Müllverbrennungsanlage befindet sich in der Nähe des Stadtzentrums.

The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas.

The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere.

In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power. Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy WtE technologies such as gasification , pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion.

While incineration and gasification technologies are similar in principle, the energy produced from incineration is high-temperature heat whereas combustible gas is often the main energy product from gasification.

Incineration and gasification may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery. In several countries, there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental effect of incinerators see arguments against incineration.

In some countries, incinerators built just a few decades ago often did not include a materials separation to remove hazardous, bulky or recyclable materials before combustion.

These facilities tended to risk the health of the plant workers and the local environment due to inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control.

Most of these facilities did not generate electricity. Garbage trucks often reduce the volume of waste in a built-in compressor before delivery to the incinerator.

In many countries, simpler waste compaction is a common practice for compaction at landfills. Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures.

Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or very toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant.

Waste combustion is particularly popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders by using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century, in localised combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes.

They were originally known as destructors. An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste. Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning.

There are various types of incinerator plant design: The burn pile is one of the simplest and earliest forms of waste disposal, essentially consisting of a mound of combustible materials piled on the open ground and set on fire.

Burn piles can and have spread uncontrolled fires, for example, if the wind blows burning material off the pile into surrounding combustible grasses or onto buildings.

As interior structures of the pile are consumed, the pile can shift and collapse, spreading the burn area. Even in a situation of no wind, small lightweight ignited embers can lift off the pile via convection , and waft through the air into grasses or onto buildings, igniting them.

The burn barrel is a somewhat more controlled form of private waste incineration, containing the burning material inside a metal barrel, with a metal grating over the exhaust.

The barrel prevents the spread of burning material in windy conditions, and as the combustibles are reduced they can only settle down into the barrel.

The exhaust grating helps to prevent the spread of burning embers. Most urban communities ban burn barrels and certain rural communities may have prohibitions on open burning, especially those home to many residents not familiar with this common rural practice.

As of [update] in the United States, private rural household or farm waste incineration of small quantities was typically permitted so long as it is not a nuisance to others, does not pose a risk of fire such as in dry conditions, and the fire does not produce dense, noxious smoke.

A handful of states, such as New York, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, have laws or regulations either banning or strictly regulating open burning due to health and nuisance effects.

The typical incineration plant for municipal solid waste is a moving grate incinerator. The moving grate enables the movement of waste through the combustion chamber to be optimized to allow a more efficient and complete combustion.

The waste is introduced by a waste crane through the "throat" at one end of the grate, from where it moves down over the descending grate to the ash pit in the other end.

Here the ash is removed through a water lock. Part of the combustion air primary combustion air is supplied through the grate from below.

This air flow also has the purpose of cooling the grate itself. Cooling is important for the mechanical strength of the grate, and many moving grates are also water-cooled internally.

Secondary combustion air is supplied into the boiler at high speed through nozzles over the grate. It facilitates complete combustion of the flue gases by introducing turbulence for better mixing and by ensuring a surplus of oxygen.

In order to comply with this at all times, it is required to install backup auxiliary burners often fueled by oil , which are fired into the boiler in case the heating value of the waste becomes too low to reach this temperature alone.

In Scandinavia , scheduled maintenance is always performed during summer, where the demand for district heating is low. Often, incineration plants consist of several separate 'boiler lines' boilers and flue gas treatment plants , so that waste can continue to be received at one boiler line while the others are undergoing maintenance, repair, or upgrading.

The older and simpler kind of incinerator was a brick-lined cell with a fixed metal grate over a lower ash pit, with one opening in the top or side for loading and another opening in the side for removing incombustible solids called clinkers.

Many small incinerators formerly found in apartment houses have now been replaced by waste compactors. The rotary-kiln incinerator [12] is used by municipalities and by large industrial plants.

This design of incinerator has 2 chambers: The primary chamber in a rotary kiln incinerator consists of an inclined refractory lined cylindrical tube.

The inner refractory lining serves as sacrificial layer to protect the kiln structure. This refractory layer needs to be replaced from time to time.

In the primary chamber, there is conversion of solid fraction to gases, through volatilization, destructive distillation and partial combustion reactions.

The secondary chamber is necessary to complete gas phase combustion reactions. The clinkers spill out at the end of the cylinder.

A tall flue-gas stack, fan, or steam jet supplies the needed draft. Ash drops through the grate, but many particles are carried along with the hot gases.

The particles and any combustible gases may be combusted in an "afterburner". A strong airflow is forced through a sandbed.

The air seeps through the sand until a point is reached where the sand particles separate to let the air through and mixing and churning occurs, thus a fluidized bed is created and fuel and waste can now be introduced.

The bed is thereby violently mixed and agitated keeping small inert particles and air in a fluid-like state. This allows all of the mass of waste, fuel and sand to be fully circulated through the furnace.

Furniture factory sawdust incinerators need much attention as these have to handle resin powder and many flammable substances. Controlled combustion, burn back prevention systems are essential as dust when suspended resembles the fire catch phenomenon of any liquid petroleum gas.

The heat produced by an incinerator can be used to generate steam which may then be used to drive a turbine in order to produce electricity.

Incineration has a number of outputs such as the ash and the emission to the atmosphere of flue gas. Before the flue gas cleaning system , if installed, the flue gases may contain particulate matter , heavy metals , dioxins , furans , sulfur dioxide , and hydrochloric acid.

If plants have inadequate flue gas cleaning, these outputs may add a significant pollution component to stack emissions.

In a study from , Delaware Solid Waste Authority found that, for same amount of produced energy, incineration plants emitted fewer particles, hydrocarbons and less SO 2 , HCl, CO and NO x than coal-fired power plants, but more than natural gas—fired power plants.

The most publicized concerns from environmentalists about the incineration of municipal solid wastes MSW involve the fear that it produces significant amounts of dioxin and furan emissions.

The EPA announced in that the safe limit for human oral consumption is 0. In , The Ministry of the Environment of Germany, where there were 66 incinerators at that time, estimated that " Chimneys and tiled stoves in private households alone discharge approximately 20 times more dioxin into the environment than incineration plants.

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency , [9] the combustion percentages of the total dioxin and furan inventory from all known and estimated sources in the U.

Thus, the controlled combustion of waste accounted for In , before the governmental regulations required the use of emission controls, there was a total of 8, Today, the total emissions from the plants are Studies conducted by the US-EPA [19] demonstrated that the emissions from just one family using a burn barrel produced more emissions than an incineration plant disposing of metric tons short tons of waste per day by and five times that by due to increased chemicals in household trash and decreased emissions by municipal incinerators using better technology.

However, the same researchers found that their original estimates for the burn barrel were high, and that the incineration plant used for comparison represented a theoretical 'clean' plant rather than any existing facility.

Their later studies [21] found that burn barrels produced a median of Most of the improvement in U. The breakdown of dioxin requires exposure of the molecular ring to a sufficiently high temperature so as to trigger thermal breakdown of the strong molecular bonds holding it together.

Small pieces of fly ash may be somewhat thick, and too brief an exposure to high temperature may only degrade dioxin on the surface of the ash.

For a large volume air chamber, too brief an exposure may also result in only some of the exhaust gases reaching the full breakdown temperature.

For this reason there is also a time element to the temperature exposure to ensure heating completely through the thickness of the fly ash and the volume of waste gases.

There are trade-offs between increasing either the temperature or exposure time. Generally where the molecular breakdown temperature is higher, the exposure time for heating can be shorter, but excessively high temperatures can also cause wear and damage to other parts of the incineration equipment.

A side effect of breaking the strong molecular bonds of dioxin is the potential for breaking the bonds of nitrogen gas N 2 and oxygen gas O 2 in the supply air.

As the exhaust flow cools, these highly reactive detached atoms spontaneously reform bonds into reactive oxides such as NO x in the flue gas, which can result in smog formation and acid rain if they were released directly into the local environment.

These reactive oxides must be further neutralized with selective catalytic reduction SCR or selective non-catalytic reduction see below. The temperatures needed to break down dioxin are typically not reached when burning plastics outdoors in a burn barrel or garbage pit, causing high dioxin emissions as mentioned above.

While plastic does usually burn in an open-air fire, the dioxins remain after combustion and either float off into the atmosphere, or may remain in the ash where it can be leached down into groundwater when rain falls on the ash pile.

Fortunately, dioxin and furan compounds bond very strongly to solid surfaces and are not dissolved by water, so leaching processes are limited to the first few millimeters below the ash pile.

The gas-phase dioxins can be substantially destroyed using catalysts, some of which can be present as part of the fabric filter bag structure. They are equipped with auxiliary heaters to ensure this at all times.

These are often fueled by oil or natural gas, and are normally only active for a very small fraction of the time.

Further, most modern incinerators utilize fabric filters often with Teflon membranes to enhance collection of sub-micron particles which can capture dioxins present in or on solid particles.

For very small municipal incinerators, the required temperature for thermal breakdown of dioxin may be reached using a high-temperature electrical heating element, plus a selective catalytic reduction stage.

Although dioxins and furans may be destroyed by combustion, their reformation by a process known as 'de novo synthesis' as the emission gases cool is a probable source of the dioxins measured in emission stack tests from plants that have high combustion temperatures held at long residence times.

As for other complete combustion processes, nearly all of the carbon content in the waste is emitted as CO 2 to the atmosphere.

Since the global warming potential of methane is 34 and the weight of 62 cubic meters of methane at 25 degrees Celsius is In some countries, large amounts of landfill gas are collected.

Still the global warming potential of the landfill gas emitted to atmosphere is significant. In addition, nearly all biodegradable waste has biological origin.

This material has been formed by plants using atmospheric CO 2 typically within the last growing season. If these plants are regrown the CO 2 emitted from their combustion will be taken out from the atmosphere once more.

Such considerations are the main reason why several countries administrate incineration of biodegradable waste as renewable energy.

Different results for the CO 2 footprint of incineration can be reached with different assumptions. Local conditions such as limited local district heating demand, no fossil fuel generated electricity to replace or high levels of aluminium in the waste stream can decrease the CO 2 benefits of incineration.

The methodology and other assumptions may also influence the results significantly. For example, the methane emissions from landfills occurring at a later date may be neglected or given less weight, or biodegradable waste may not be considered CO 2 neutral.

A study by Eunomia Research and Consulting in on potential waste treatment technologies in London demonstrated that by applying several of these according to the authors unusual assumptions the average existing incineration plants performed poorly for CO 2 balance compared to the theoretical potential of other emerging waste treatment technologies.

Other gaseous emissions in the flue gas from incinerator furnaces include nitrogen oxides , sulfur dioxide , hydrochloric acid , heavy metals , and fine particles.

Of the heavy metals, mercury is a major concern due to its toxicity and high volatility, as essentially all mercury in the municipal waste stream may exit in emissions if not removed by emission controls.

The steam content in the flue may produce visible fume from the stack, which can be perceived as a visual pollution.

It may be avoided by decreasing the steam content by flue-gas condensation and reheating, or by increasing the flue gas exit temperature well above its dew point.

Flue-gas condensation allows the latent heat of vaporization of the water to be recovered, subsequently increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant.

The quantity of pollutants in the flue gas from incineration plants may or may not be reduced by several processes, depending on the plant.

The latter are generally very efficient for collecting fine particles. In an investigation by the Ministry of the Environment of Denmark in , the average particulate emissions per energy content of incinerated waste from 16 Danish incinerators were below 2.

Detailed measurements of fine particles with sizes below 2. One incinerator equipped with an ESP for particle filtration emitted 5.

For ultra fine particles PM 1. Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acid , nitric acid , hydrofluoric acid , mercury , lead and other heavy metals.

The efficiency of removal will depend on the specific equipment, the chemical composition of the waste, the design of the plant, the chemistry of reagents, and the ability of engineers to optimize these conditions, which may conflict for different pollutants.

Waste water from scrubbers must subsequently pass through a waste water treatment plant. English Hydroelectric power should be supplemented by forms of energy other than waste incineration.

English Co- incineration is a good thing, if it is carried out properly - I support it. English At the same time, incineration acts as a counterincentive to recycling.

English It is nonetheless good that we have now obtained tighter rules covering waste incineration. English Secondly, the public will have far better access to information about incineration plants.

English Proper co- incineration in accordance with strict standards is therefore the right way forward. English We should be seeking ways to avoid incineration in the first place.

English The debate has particularly crystallised around co- incineration plants. English More stringent rules for incineration plants are highly desirable.

English incesteous incestuously inch inches inchoate incidence incident incidental incidental contact incidental finding incineration incinerator incipient incised incision incisive incisor incitement incivility incl.

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In some countries, incinerators built just a few decades ago often did not include a materials separation to remove hazardous, bulky or recyclable materials before combustion.

These facilities tended to risk the health of the plant workers and the local environment due to inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control.

Most of these facilities did not generate electricity. Garbage trucks often reduce the volume of waste in a built-in compressor before delivery to the incinerator.

In many countries, simpler waste compaction is a common practice for compaction at landfills. Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures.

Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or very toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant.

Waste combustion is particularly popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders by using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century, in localised combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes.

They were originally known as destructors. An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste. Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning.

There are various types of incinerator plant design: The burn pile is one of the simplest and earliest forms of waste disposal, essentially consisting of a mound of combustible materials piled on the open ground and set on fire.

Burn piles can and have spread uncontrolled fires, for example, if the wind blows burning material off the pile into surrounding combustible grasses or onto buildings.

As interior structures of the pile are consumed, the pile can shift and collapse, spreading the burn area. Even in a situation of no wind, small lightweight ignited embers can lift off the pile via convection , and waft through the air into grasses or onto buildings, igniting them.

The burn barrel is a somewhat more controlled form of private waste incineration, containing the burning material inside a metal barrel, with a metal grating over the exhaust.

The barrel prevents the spread of burning material in windy conditions, and as the combustibles are reduced they can only settle down into the barrel.

The exhaust grating helps to prevent the spread of burning embers. Most urban communities ban burn barrels and certain rural communities may have prohibitions on open burning, especially those home to many residents not familiar with this common rural practice.

As of [update] in the United States, private rural household or farm waste incineration of small quantities was typically permitted so long as it is not a nuisance to others, does not pose a risk of fire such as in dry conditions, and the fire does not produce dense, noxious smoke.

A handful of states, such as New York, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, have laws or regulations either banning or strictly regulating open burning due to health and nuisance effects.

The typical incineration plant for municipal solid waste is a moving grate incinerator. The moving grate enables the movement of waste through the combustion chamber to be optimized to allow a more efficient and complete combustion.

The waste is introduced by a waste crane through the "throat" at one end of the grate, from where it moves down over the descending grate to the ash pit in the other end.

Here the ash is removed through a water lock. Part of the combustion air primary combustion air is supplied through the grate from below.

This air flow also has the purpose of cooling the grate itself. Cooling is important for the mechanical strength of the grate, and many moving grates are also water-cooled internally.

Secondary combustion air is supplied into the boiler at high speed through nozzles over the grate. It facilitates complete combustion of the flue gases by introducing turbulence for better mixing and by ensuring a surplus of oxygen.

In order to comply with this at all times, it is required to install backup auxiliary burners often fueled by oil , which are fired into the boiler in case the heating value of the waste becomes too low to reach this temperature alone.

In Scandinavia , scheduled maintenance is always performed during summer, where the demand for district heating is low. Often, incineration plants consist of several separate 'boiler lines' boilers and flue gas treatment plants , so that waste can continue to be received at one boiler line while the others are undergoing maintenance, repair, or upgrading.

The older and simpler kind of incinerator was a brick-lined cell with a fixed metal grate over a lower ash pit, with one opening in the top or side for loading and another opening in the side for removing incombustible solids called clinkers.

Many small incinerators formerly found in apartment houses have now been replaced by waste compactors. The rotary-kiln incinerator [12] is used by municipalities and by large industrial plants.

This design of incinerator has 2 chambers: The primary chamber in a rotary kiln incinerator consists of an inclined refractory lined cylindrical tube.

The inner refractory lining serves as sacrificial layer to protect the kiln structure. This refractory layer needs to be replaced from time to time.

In the primary chamber, there is conversion of solid fraction to gases, through volatilization, destructive distillation and partial combustion reactions.

The secondary chamber is necessary to complete gas phase combustion reactions. The clinkers spill out at the end of the cylinder.

A tall flue-gas stack, fan, or steam jet supplies the needed draft. Ash drops through the grate, but many particles are carried along with the hot gases.

The particles and any combustible gases may be combusted in an "afterburner". A strong airflow is forced through a sandbed.

The air seeps through the sand until a point is reached where the sand particles separate to let the air through and mixing and churning occurs, thus a fluidized bed is created and fuel and waste can now be introduced.

The bed is thereby violently mixed and agitated keeping small inert particles and air in a fluid-like state. This allows all of the mass of waste, fuel and sand to be fully circulated through the furnace.

Furniture factory sawdust incinerators need much attention as these have to handle resin powder and many flammable substances. Controlled combustion, burn back prevention systems are essential as dust when suspended resembles the fire catch phenomenon of any liquid petroleum gas.

The heat produced by an incinerator can be used to generate steam which may then be used to drive a turbine in order to produce electricity.

Incineration has a number of outputs such as the ash and the emission to the atmosphere of flue gas. Before the flue gas cleaning system , if installed, the flue gases may contain particulate matter , heavy metals , dioxins , furans , sulfur dioxide , and hydrochloric acid.

If plants have inadequate flue gas cleaning, these outputs may add a significant pollution component to stack emissions.

In a study from , Delaware Solid Waste Authority found that, for same amount of produced energy, incineration plants emitted fewer particles, hydrocarbons and less SO 2 , HCl, CO and NO x than coal-fired power plants, but more than natural gas—fired power plants.

The most publicized concerns from environmentalists about the incineration of municipal solid wastes MSW involve the fear that it produces significant amounts of dioxin and furan emissions.

The EPA announced in that the safe limit for human oral consumption is 0. In , The Ministry of the Environment of Germany, where there were 66 incinerators at that time, estimated that " Chimneys and tiled stoves in private households alone discharge approximately 20 times more dioxin into the environment than incineration plants.

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency , [9] the combustion percentages of the total dioxin and furan inventory from all known and estimated sources in the U.

Thus, the controlled combustion of waste accounted for In , before the governmental regulations required the use of emission controls, there was a total of 8, Today, the total emissions from the plants are Studies conducted by the US-EPA [19] demonstrated that the emissions from just one family using a burn barrel produced more emissions than an incineration plant disposing of metric tons short tons of waste per day by and five times that by due to increased chemicals in household trash and decreased emissions by municipal incinerators using better technology.

However, the same researchers found that their original estimates for the burn barrel were high, and that the incineration plant used for comparison represented a theoretical 'clean' plant rather than any existing facility.

Their later studies [21] found that burn barrels produced a median of Most of the improvement in U. The breakdown of dioxin requires exposure of the molecular ring to a sufficiently high temperature so as to trigger thermal breakdown of the strong molecular bonds holding it together.

Small pieces of fly ash may be somewhat thick, and too brief an exposure to high temperature may only degrade dioxin on the surface of the ash.

For a large volume air chamber, too brief an exposure may also result in only some of the exhaust gases reaching the full breakdown temperature.

For this reason there is also a time element to the temperature exposure to ensure heating completely through the thickness of the fly ash and the volume of waste gases.

There are trade-offs between increasing either the temperature or exposure time. Generally where the molecular breakdown temperature is higher, the exposure time for heating can be shorter, but excessively high temperatures can also cause wear and damage to other parts of the incineration equipment.

A side effect of breaking the strong molecular bonds of dioxin is the potential for breaking the bonds of nitrogen gas N 2 and oxygen gas O 2 in the supply air.

As the exhaust flow cools, these highly reactive detached atoms spontaneously reform bonds into reactive oxides such as NO x in the flue gas, which can result in smog formation and acid rain if they were released directly into the local environment.

These reactive oxides must be further neutralized with selective catalytic reduction SCR or selective non-catalytic reduction see below.

The temperatures needed to break down dioxin are typically not reached when burning plastics outdoors in a burn barrel or garbage pit, causing high dioxin emissions as mentioned above.

While plastic does usually burn in an open-air fire, the dioxins remain after combustion and either float off into the atmosphere, or may remain in the ash where it can be leached down into groundwater when rain falls on the ash pile.

Fortunately, dioxin and furan compounds bond very strongly to solid surfaces and are not dissolved by water, so leaching processes are limited to the first few millimeters below the ash pile.

The gas-phase dioxins can be substantially destroyed using catalysts, some of which can be present as part of the fabric filter bag structure.

They are equipped with auxiliary heaters to ensure this at all times. These are often fueled by oil or natural gas, and are normally only active for a very small fraction of the time.

Further, most modern incinerators utilize fabric filters often with Teflon membranes to enhance collection of sub-micron particles which can capture dioxins present in or on solid particles.

For very small municipal incinerators, the required temperature for thermal breakdown of dioxin may be reached using a high-temperature electrical heating element, plus a selective catalytic reduction stage.

Although dioxins and furans may be destroyed by combustion, their reformation by a process known as 'de novo synthesis' as the emission gases cool is a probable source of the dioxins measured in emission stack tests from plants that have high combustion temperatures held at long residence times.

As for other complete combustion processes, nearly all of the carbon content in the waste is emitted as CO 2 to the atmosphere. Since the global warming potential of methane is 34 and the weight of 62 cubic meters of methane at 25 degrees Celsius is In some countries, large amounts of landfill gas are collected.

Still the global warming potential of the landfill gas emitted to atmosphere is significant. In addition, nearly all biodegradable waste has biological origin.

This material has been formed by plants using atmospheric CO 2 typically within the last growing season. If these plants are regrown the CO 2 emitted from their combustion will be taken out from the atmosphere once more.

Such considerations are the main reason why several countries administrate incineration of biodegradable waste as renewable energy. Different results for the CO 2 footprint of incineration can be reached with different assumptions.

Local conditions such as limited local district heating demand, no fossil fuel generated electricity to replace or high levels of aluminium in the waste stream can decrease the CO 2 benefits of incineration.

The methodology and other assumptions may also influence the results significantly. For example, the methane emissions from landfills occurring at a later date may be neglected or given less weight, or biodegradable waste may not be considered CO 2 neutral.

A study by Eunomia Research and Consulting in on potential waste treatment technologies in London demonstrated that by applying several of these according to the authors unusual assumptions the average existing incineration plants performed poorly for CO 2 balance compared to the theoretical potential of other emerging waste treatment technologies.

Other gaseous emissions in the flue gas from incinerator furnaces include nitrogen oxides , sulfur dioxide , hydrochloric acid , heavy metals , and fine particles.

Of the heavy metals, mercury is a major concern due to its toxicity and high volatility, as essentially all mercury in the municipal waste stream may exit in emissions if not removed by emission controls.

The steam content in the flue may produce visible fume from the stack, which can be perceived as a visual pollution. It may be avoided by decreasing the steam content by flue-gas condensation and reheating, or by increasing the flue gas exit temperature well above its dew point.

Flue-gas condensation allows the latent heat of vaporization of the water to be recovered, subsequently increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant.

The quantity of pollutants in the flue gas from incineration plants may or may not be reduced by several processes, depending on the plant. The latter are generally very efficient for collecting fine particles.

In an investigation by the Ministry of the Environment of Denmark in , the average particulate emissions per energy content of incinerated waste from 16 Danish incinerators were below 2.

Detailed measurements of fine particles with sizes below 2. One incinerator equipped with an ESP for particle filtration emitted 5.

For ultra fine particles PM 1. Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acid , nitric acid , hydrofluoric acid , mercury , lead and other heavy metals.

The efficiency of removal will depend on the specific equipment, the chemical composition of the waste, the design of the plant, the chemistry of reagents, and the ability of engineers to optimize these conditions, which may conflict for different pollutants.

Waste water from scrubbers must subsequently pass through a waste water treatment plant. Sulfur dioxide may also be removed by dry desulfurisation by injection limestone slurry into the flue gas before the particle filtration.

NO x is either reduced by catalytic reduction with ammonia in a catalytic converter selective catalytic reduction , SCR or by a high-temperature reaction with ammonia in the furnace selective non-catalytic reduction , SNCR.

Urea may be substituted for ammonia as the reducing reagent but must be supplied earlier in the process so that it can hydrolyze into ammonia.

Substitution of urea can reduce costs and potential hazards associated with storage of anhydrous ammonia.

Heavy metals are often adsorbed on injected active carbon powder, which is collected by particle filtration. Incineration produces fly ash and bottom ash just as is the case when coal is combusted.

At present although some historic samples tested by the incinerator operators' group would meet the being ecotoxic criteria at present the EA say "we have agreed" to regard incinerator bottom ash as "non-hazardous" until the testing programme is complete.

English The technology for cleaning up fumes from waste incineration plants already exists. English One of the hardest problems was to define what co- incineration meant.

English - SV More stringent rules for incineration plants are highly desirable. Att skärpa reglerna för förbränningsanläggningar är i hög grad önskvärt.

English Regrettably, in my opinion, a majority has approved co- incineration. English Hydroelectric power should be supplemented by forms of energy other than waste incineration.

English Co- incineration is a good thing, if it is carried out properly - I support it. English At the same time, incineration acts as a counterincentive to recycling.

English It is nonetheless good that we have now obtained tighter rules covering waste incineration. English Secondly, the public will have far better access to information about incineration plants.

English Proper co- incineration in accordance with strict standards is therefore the right way forward. English We should be seeking ways to avoid incineration in the first place.

English The debate has particularly crystallised around co- incineration plants. English More stringent rules for incineration plants are highly desirable.

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